Income, Expenditure,
Staff and Sustainability Reports
2020/21

The official duties and charitable work of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, including the office of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, are paid for from His Royal Highness’s private income from the Duchy of Cornwall.

  • Income and Expenditure Account

    Year ended 31 March 2021
    £000s
    2020
    £000s
    Income and funding
    Duchy of Cornwall 20,415 22,244
    Sovereign Grant 424 1,762
    Total income and funding 20,839 24,006
    Official Expenditure
    Official duties and charitable work (7,834) (8,453)
    London office and official residence (172) (521)
    Official travel by air and rail (252) (1,241)
    Total Sovereign Grant (424) (1,762)
    Surplus after official expenditure (12,851) (13,791)
    Other Expenditure
    Tax (including VAT) (5,022) (4,861)
    Non-official expenditure (3,063) (3,203)
    Funding for the activities of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and The Duke and Duchess of Sussex, other expenditure including capital expenditure less depreciation, and transfer to reserves (4,452) (5,607)
    Net cash surplus 44 120
    Transfer to Reserves
    The Household makes transfers to reserves each year, the amount of which varies depending on the financial outcome in the year. Reserves provide resilience and fund large scale projects, one of which in the last two years has been the conversion of the Sandringham Farm to be fully organic.
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Year ended 31 March
    CO2 emissions
    2021
    Tonnes
    2020
    Tonnes
    Office and domestic energy use 84 82
    Non-official travel 156 401
    Total energy and non-official travel emissions 240 483
    Duchy Home Farm at Highgrove 1,124 1,451
    Total Household emissions including farm 1,364 1,934

    Note: Greenhouse gas emissions in the Sustainability Report are to be subject to external review by Anthesis Group, Sustainability Consultancy.

    Household emissions from energy use increased by 2% from 2020 levels; emissions from non-official travel have decreased by 61%.

    Reported greenhouse gas emissions include staff travel between residences and in support of engagements and staff commuting and Their Royal Highnesses’ private travel. In the current year the emissions associated with home working have been calculated as part of non-official travel. Emissions vary each year with the amount of travel undertaken and the modes of transport used. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a significant reduction in travel emissions from 401 tonnes in 2020 to 156 tonnes in 2021.

    100% of the electricity used by the Household and 89% of all office and domestic energy is now from renewable sources (including renewable electricity and Green Gas). 49% of this is generated on-site by solar panels, biomass boilers and heat pumps. Further details are given in the main Sustainability Report.

    The Household buys credits from sustainable projects to offset carbon emissions to net zero.

  • Income and Funding

    (Total £20.839m)

    • Income from Duchy of Cornwall - £20.415m
    • Funding from the Sovereign Grant - £424,000
    £000s
    Duchy of Cornwall 20.415

    The Prince of Wales’s private income comes from the Duchy of Cornwall, an estate comprising agricultural, commercial and residential property mostly in the South West of England. The Duchy also has a financial investment portfolio. His Royal Highness uses the majority of his income from the Duchy to support his public duties and charitable work and those of The Duchess of Cornwall and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. The Duchy of Cornwall’s income was 8% lower than the prior year as a result of COVID-19. Annual accounts for The Duchy of Cornwall can be obtained online at  www.duchyofcornwall.org

    £000s
    Sovereign Grant Funding 424

    The Sovereign Grant funding covers official costs incurred in support of Her Majesty The Queen as Head of State. Funding for travel for official engagements varies from year to year depending on the countries Their Royal Highnesses are asked to visit on behalf of Her Majesty’s Government and this year funding decreased by £989,000 from £1.241million to £0.252million. This was due to restrictions on travel due to COVID-19.

    The Sovereign Grant also funds the official costs relating to the London office and official residence of Their Royal Highnesses which decreased by £349,000 from £0.521million to £0.172million mainly relating to the ongoing  refurbishment programme. More details about the Sovereign Grant are available at www.royal.uk.

  • £000s
    Official duties and charitable work 7.834

    Over 50 per cent of The Prince of Wales’s after-tax income from the Duchy of Cornwall was spent on the official duties and charitable work of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall. Of the expenditure of £7.834 million, staff costs accounted for £5.583 million, or 71 per cent.

    The Prince of Wales’s Household employs directly 127.7 full-time equivalent staff. Of these, 111.3 support Their Royal Highnesses in undertaking official duties and charitable work, and 16.4 are personal, estates and farm staff.

    Expenditure

    (Total £16.343m)

    • Official duties and charitable work - £7.834m
    • London office and official residence - £0.172m
    • Official travel by air and rail - £0.252m
    • Tax - £5.022m
    • Non-official expenditure - £3.063m
    £000s
    Sovereign Grant Funding: London office and official residence 0.172

    Clarence House is the London office and official residence for The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall. It is used for official dinners, receptions and meetings, as well as for offices for Their Royal Highnesses’ official staff. The principal rooms, which are on the ground floor of Clarence House, were open to the public from August 2019 until the end of September 2019, however due to Covid restrictions have not opened in 2020. The Household also has offices in other parts of St. James’s Palace. The Sovereign Grant meets the cost of the maintenance of Clarence House and of the other offices at St. James’s Palace. The Household of The Prince of Wales does not have direct oversight of the maintenance of the buildings.

    £000s
    Sovereign Grant Funding: Official travel by air and rail 0.252

    An important part of The Prince of Wales’s role as Heir to The Throne is, with The Duchess of Cornwall, to bring people together, to act as a focal point for national life and to represent the country overseas. This involves a significant amount of travel that needs to be undertaken in a way that meets efficiency, security, environmental and presentational requirements. The majority of the costs of the journeys to non-Realm countries, amounting to £0.252 million in 2020-21, were met by the Sovereign Grant. The majority of the cost of journeys to Realm countries are met by those countries. 

    This figure includes the variable costs only for journeys undertaken using  Her Majesty The Queen’s aircrafts and the Royal Train. This is because the fixed costs are incurred irrespective of whether the aircrafts and train are used and do not result from undertaking specific journeys. For a full explanation, see the Sovereign Grant Annual Report 2020-21 at www.royal.uk.

    £000s
    Tax 5.022

    The Prince of Wales is not legally required to pay income tax, but has chosen to do so since 1993. The Prince uses normal income tax rules, on the surplus of the Duchy of Cornwall after deducting official expenditure for all members of His Royal Highness’s family to calculate what is owed. The Prince of Wales also pays tax on all other income, including capital gains tax where applicable, as any private individual. Tax in the year of £5.022 million includes income tax and VAT. If employer’s National Insurance contributions and Council Tax are included, the total increases to £5.6 million.

    £000s
    Non-official expenditure 3.063

    In addition to paying for the official duties of The Prince of Wales, The Duchess of Cornwall and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, some charitable work and The Prince’s tax liabilities, the income from the Duchy of Cornwall is used to meet non-official expenditure of The Prince of Wales and his family.

    Non-official expenditure covers the salary costs of valets, farm workers, stable staff and a proportion of the costs of chefs, gardeners and estate workers. Personal expenditure also includes the appropriate share of the cost of Highgrove House in Gloucestershire and Birkhall on the Balmoral Estate in Scotland.

  • Staff

    As at and for the year to 31 March Full-time equivalent staff 2021
    Principal Private Secretary and Assistant 2.0
       
    Private Secretaries' Office  
    Private Secretary 1.0
    Deputy and Assistant Private Secretaries 6.6
    Research and Administrative Staff 16.3
    Equerry 1.0
    Equerry's Office 3.0
      27.9
    Treasurer’s Department  
    Treasurer and Assistant 2.0
    Finance 7.0
    Archives & Gifts and Inventory 5.8
    Human Resources 4.9
      19.7
    Communications  
    Communications Secretary and Assistants 3.0
    Deputy and Assistant Communications Secretaries 1.6
    Communications Officers and Digital Engagement 4.0
    Correspondence 4.0
      12.6
    Master of the Household’s Department  
    Master of the Household and Assistants 4.6
    Travel Logistics 2.0
    Butlers 1.5
    Chefs 5.0
    Orderlies 5.5
    Reception 1.0
    Chauffeurs 2.3
    House Managers and Housekeepers 8.9
    Valets and Dressers 3.3
    Gardeners and Estate Workers 15.0
      49.1

    Total Official Staff as at 31 March 2021

    111.3

    "The Household of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall employs people across a broad spectrum of disciplines and skill sets that assist Their Royal Highnesses in fulfilling their prominent role in public life."

    Offices

    The principal office of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, where most of their staff work, is in Clarence House and other parts of St. James’s Palace in central London. The cost of maintaining the fabric of the buildings, as well as a proportion of the costs of utilities and fixed-line telephones, is met from Sovereign Grant funding. There are also offices for official staff at Their Royal Highnesses’ residences of Highgrove and Birkhall to assist The Prince of Wales with his continuing work. Some costs incurred at Highgrove and Birkhall are, therefore, charged to the ‘official duties and charitable work’ expenditure category.

    Staff and Office Organisation

    The Principal Private Secretary

    The Principal Private Secretary is the senior member of The Prince of Wales’s and The Duchess of Cornwall’s Household and is responsible for all aspects of running the Household and for overseeing His Royal Highness’s charitable and other interests.

    The Private Secretaries’ Office

    The Assistant Private Secretaries facilitate and support The Prince of Wales’s and The Duchess of Cornwall’s official duties, engagements and charitable work. They are responsible for Their Royal Highnesses’ diaries, arrange briefing sessions, receptions and other functions, and co-ordinate research and briefings to support their work. Each Assistant Private Secretary is responsible for specific areas and for liaising with The Prince’s and The Duchess’s organisations. They also ensure that Their Royal Highnesses are kept informed about topical issues, provide them with background information for their correspondence and meetings, and prepare drafts for speeches and articles. The Assistant Private Secretaries are supported by researchers, personal assistants and administrative staff, and work closely with their colleagues in other Households.

    The Equerry’s Office is responsible for the programme of engagements for The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall. The Equerry’s Office manages Their Royal Highnesses’ diaries on a daily basis and plans the longer-term programme. The Equerry’s Office also manages the logistical and transport arrangements for official visits at home and abroad. There are usually several overseas visits a year. The Equerry is a serving military officer seconded from the Armed Forces to the Household for a period of approximately two years.

    Each year, The Prince and The Duchess receive thousands of invitations from a wide range of public and private sector organisations. Each is given careful consideration by Their Royal Highnesses and their staff. The Equerry liaises with the Assistant Private Secretaries, the Communications Office and key organisations to ensure that each year in their visits, The Prince and The Duchess cover a broad range of interests and meet a wide cross-section of people in as many parts of the country as possible. The Equerry also provides a point of contact for military and defence issues. The Prince of Wales maintains close links with the Armed Forces, not just in Britain but also in the Commonwealth.

    The Prince of Wales conducts Investitures at Buckingham Palace and attends state functions at the request and on behalf of Her Majesty The Queen. The Equerry’s Office is responsible for the arrangements for these engagements.

    The Treasurer’s Office

    The Treasurer’s Office is responsible for Finance, HR, Archives and Inventory. The Office is also responsible for information systems across the Household and contractual and legal matters. 

    The Finance Department exercises financial control through a combination of annual budgets, reforecasts and management accounts and through the application of policies and procedures, particularly for the authorisation of expenditure. It is also responsible for achieving the best value for money and works with the Master’s Department on procurement. The majority of the Household’s information technology systems are provided and supported by the Information Systems Management section at Buckingham Palace, with the Household’s cost met by The Prince of Wales.

    The Human Resources Department ensures a highly productive working environment which enables staff to work collaboratively and supports learning and career development. It is responsible for all aspects of the Household staffing, including structure, search and selection, inward and outbound secondments, remuneration and benefits, training and development, internal communications and health and wellbeing.

    Three Archivists are responsible for managing all the papers and files relating to the public life of The Prince of Wales since the late 1960s. The Keeper of the Archives also manages requests for The Prince and The Duchess to become patron or president of organisations, as well as requests relating to existing patronages and presidencies. One inventory controller and two assistants are responsible for the recording and safekeeping of gifts and assets owned by Their Royal Highnesses and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.

    Communications

    As Heir to The Throne, there is extensive public and media interest in the activities of His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales and that of The Duchess of Cornwall. The Clarence House Communications Office helps to facilitate a better understanding of their work and activities. The Communications Office handles all media enquiries and proactive communications, including features, documentaries and events, for The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall and liaises closely with Royal Communications colleagues in respect of general issues to do with The Royal Family.

    Correspondence

    The Prince of Wales, The Duchess of Cornwall and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge receive a large number of letters each year. In 2020-21, for example, 44,275 letters and cards were received. People from all over the world write to Their Royal Highnesses, although the majority of the letters are from the UK. Letters cover a wide range of subjects and are often prompted by current issues and debates. Their Royal Highnesses see a wide selection of the correspondence and reply to many of the letters they receive directly. The Prince personally wrote 772 letters in 2020-21 and The Duchess of Cornwall wrote 342 personal letters. Their Royal Highnesses ensure that letters not answered by themselves or their Private Secretaries are replied to by the Correspondence Section on their behalf. 

    Master of the Household’s Department

    The Master of the Household is responsible for Their Royal Highnesses’ residences, offices and gardens, personal staff, receptions and all entertaining. The Master of the Household, in conjunction with the Metropolitan Police, is also responsible for security.

    Official entertaining is an important part of The Prince of Wales’s and The Duchess of Cornwall’s role. These occasions range from receiving official guests and foreign dignitaries to giving receptions of various kinds to thank those involved with The Prince’s and The Duchess’s charities.

    The Master of the Household’s Department also includes Orderlies (who maintain office equipment and are responsible for office supplies, stationery and office cars) and Receptionists, and it has responsibility for health and safety.

    Working at The Household

    The Household of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall employs people across a broad spectrum of disciplines and skill sets that assist Their Royal Highnesses in fulfilling their prominent role in public life. As an employer, the Household prides itself on being committed to its staff and encouraging individuals to grow and thrive within the organisation.

    The Household has welcomed summer internships, work experience placements and school visits, in order to provide a greater understanding of working life within this energetic organisation.

    Of those who declare their ethnicity, 8% are from ethnic minority backgrounds. The Household recognises that our own workforce should reflect the communities that we serve and is committed to building an inclusive workplace. 

    Supporting people, organisations and communities

    Support for people, communities and organisations is a major part of Their Royal Highnesses’ vision and work and a primary focus for their charities and engagement programmes. This year the Household supported Their Royal Highnesses in undertaking 348 engagements and meetings across 3 countries and 36 towns and cities in the UK and virtually.

    Their Royal Highnesses’ engagements are intended to cast a light on excellence and achievement in communities across all sectors of society, to bring people together in support of community-based initiatives and endeavours, to promote and protect traditions that are shared and valued by people from many different walks of life and to act as a focal point for local and national unity and cohesion.

    The Prince’s consolidated charitable structure of The Prince’s Trust group, The Prince’s Foundation and The Prince of Wales Charitable Fund has allowed renewed focus on providing youth opportunity, skills training, education and community outreach programmes to thrive.

  • 61%

    Decrease in emissions from non-official travel

    Sustainability report

    Their Royal Highnesses devote much of their lives to environmental and social causes, through the charities and initiatives they support and the engagements they undertake.

    This section sets out some of the positive contributions the Household makes in support of Their Royal Highnesses. It also sets out its main environmental impacts, which arise from travel, office and domestic energy use, and sustainable farming at Highgrove.

     

    The environment

    Greenhouse gas emissions

    Greenhouse gas emissions arise primarily through the burning of fossil fuels for transport, heating and lighting, and from agriculture at the Home Farm.

    Household emissions from energy use increased by 2% from 2020 levels; emissions from non-official travel have decreased by 61%. 

    Year ended 31 March CO2 emissions 2021 Tonnes 2020 Tonnes
    Office and domestic energy use 84 82
    Non-official travel 156 401
    Total energy and non-official travel emissions 240 483
    Duchy Home Farm at Highgrove 1,124 1,451
    Total Household emissions including farm 1,364 1,934

    While emissions vary each year, the aim is to ensure they are minimised by investing in renewable energy and ensuring travel is planned with carbon as well as cost, security and logistics in mind. This year 89% of energy (including green gas and electricity) came from renewable sources and just under half of this was generated on-site by solar panels, biomass boilers and heat pumps.

    Official UK and overseas travel is considered separately as it is on behalf of Her Majesty’s UK Governments and is not under the Household’s control. The carbon emissions associated with the Official travel are detailed within the Sovereign Grant Annual Report.

    The Household balances out its emissions to zero by investing in sustainable projects; for each tonne emitted the Household buys a carbon credit representing a tonne stored or saved through credible carbon offsetting. 

    Total CO2 Emissions

    (tonnes)

    2021

    156

    2020

    401

    500

    450

    400

    350

    300

    250

    200

    150

    100

    50

    0

    • Non-official travel emissions
    • Total energy and non-official travel

    "This year 89% of energy (including green gas and electricity) came from renewable sources and just under half of this was generated on-site by solar panels, biomass boilers and heat pumps."

    Energy use

    The table below shows the mix of energy sources used across the offices and residences and the resulting carbon emissions.

    Year ended 31 March 

    Office and domestic energy use

    2021

    MWh

    2020

    MWh

    On-site renewable energy 1,394 1,423
    Electricity and gas (renewable sources via the grid) 754 934
    Total from renewable sources 2,148 2,357
    Electricity, gas and oil (non-renewable sources) 264 253
    Total energy use                                                      2,412 2,610

    CO2 emissions

    2021 

    Tonnes

    2020

    Tonnes

    Gross carbon emissions (location-based)          156 294
    Net emissions (market-based)1 84 82

    1. Applying zero emissions to mains-gas backed by Green Gas Credits and applying the market rate to electricity purchases under new Greenhouse Gas Protocol Scope 2 guidance – see the Carbon Report for more details. 

    "Official travel outside and inside the UK is undertaken at the request either of Her Majesty’s Government, or the Government(s) of The Queen’s other Realms. Emissions vary each year depending on the countries Their Royal Highnesses are asked to visit."

    Travel

    Reported greenhouse gas emissions include staff travel between residences and in support of engagements, staff commuting and Their Royal Highnesses’ private travel.  Emissions vary each year with the amount of travel undertaken and the modes of transport used.

    Year ended 31 March

    2021 2020
    CO2 emissions 156 tonnes

    401 tonnes

    Official travel outside and inside the UK is undertaken at the request either of Her Majesty’s Government, or the Government(s) of The Queen’s other Realms. Emissions vary each year depending on the countries Their Royal Highnesses are asked to visit. The carbon emissions associated with the Official travel are detailed within the Sovereign Grant Annual Report.

    Water

    Year ended 31 March

    Measured water use

    2021

    m3

    2020 

    m3

    Total measured mains water use 9,187 6,928

    Water use varies each year according to various factors including the number and type of events and the amount of rain. Where possible, alternative sources of water are used such as collected rainwater or water from boreholes. Other measures to reduce water use includes the use of dual- flush toilets, low-flow showers and water-free car cleaning products. The Household also uses a range of cleaning products that are designed to reduce their impact on waterways.

    Waste

    Alongside the usual recycling arrangements for paper, card, metals and plastics, the Household has for many years sent food waste (e.g. vegetable peelings) from the London offices to be turned into fertiliser and generate renewable energy. Staff tea-points have bins to collect tea bags and other small bits of food waste as well as the main kitchens.

    Where possible, other waste is composted on-site. Food waste is minimised by careful meal planning and re-use of leftovers.

    The Household sends the majority of its plastic waste for recycling and is taking action to reduce its single plastic use. It has used glasses and ceramic mugs and cups rather than disposable cups for over a decade. Kitchens have chilled water dispensers that are connected to the mains, so plastic bottles aren’t needed.

     

    Procurement

    The Household’s environmental and social impact extends beyond its own activities and these are considered when choosing goods and services and suppliers.

    Businesses that have been granted a Royal Warrant for goods or services supplied to the Household have, since 1990, been required to demonstrate they understand and take a responsible approach to environmental and social issues. An independent committee, assisted by Business in the Community and the Household, reviews how the companies respond to a wide range of sustainability and social issues including climate change, endangered species, labour standards, genetic modification, deforestation and waste management (including use of  plastics). The Household also engages with other key suppliers on environmental and social matters.

    Carbon footprint 2012 - 2021

     

    Duchy Home Farm CO2 Emissions

    (Tonnes)

    2021

    1,046

    37

    -92

    2020

    1,296

    76

    -92

    2000

    1500

    1000

    500

    0

    • Livestock and manure
    • Energy use
    • Crops and other sources
    • CO2 captured in woodland

    Duchy Home Farm

    His Royal Highness began the conversion of Duchy Home Farm to an organic farming system over thirty years ago. It produces a wide range of meat and cereals as well as fruit and vegetables. It is an exemplar for sustainable agriculture, with over 1,000 people visiting each year to learn about holistic farming principles and practices that promote healthy soil, livestock and produce.

    Duchy Home Farm has, by today’s standards, relatively small herds of cattle that spend as much time outside as the weather allows – at least six months. The cattle have a low stocking density giving them plenty of space to roam. They have a grass (rather than corn or soy) based diet, the majority of which is grown on-site or locally. This means the farm doesn’t contribute to tropical deforestation from soy growing.

    Using and enhancing natural capital

    The farm is run in a way that protects and enhances natural capital. All farm production results in a range of environmental and social impacts. The positive benefits, often not accounted for in an organic farming system, include:

    Greater biodiversity: most of the land is farmed in rotation producing a range of crops and livestock. The estate has over 300 acres of species-rich permanent pasture with over 80 different plant species in some fields. This encourages a wide range of insects, birds and other wildlife.

    Food security: working within closed cycles and reducing dependency on imported feed and fertiliser helps reduce the reliance on unsustainable fossil fuels and market volatility.

    Healthy living soil: this is a key part of natural capital and underpins organic agriculture. Management practices are focused on protecting and enhancing the living part of the soil. Traditional crop rotation uses legumes such as clover to take nitrogen from the air and hold it in the soil for the benefit of the following crops. Animal manure from winter-housed cattle is composted and spread back on the land, recycling vital nutrients and promoting healthy soil.

    High standards of animal welfare: all livestock are kept in ways that allow them to express their natural traits; pigs and sheep live outside all year round; dairy and beef cattle are at pasture for at least six months of the year and housed during the winter when they are fed silage and hay-based diets. Antibiotics are used only when prescribed by a vet as necessary for the welfare of the animal.
     

    Greenhouse gas emissions

    Greenhouse gas emissions are an unavoidable impact of agriculture; at the Duchy Home Farm they come mainly from nitrogen in manure and crops, and from livestock. The farm is managed to try to minimise emissions through the careful timing of manure applications and the sowing of plants that ‘catch’ the nitrogen. By incorporating cattle manure and plant matter in the soil, significant quantities of carbon can be stored, reducing net greenhouse gas emissions. Avoiding energy-intensive artificial fertilisers reduces greenhouse gas emissions in the supply chain. Steps are also taken to reduce fossil fuel use such as solar thermal heating and solar panels that reduce grid electricity use.

    Year ended 31 March

    CO2 emissions1

    2021

    Tonnes

    2020

    Tonnes

    Energy use 133 171
    Livestock and manure 1,046 1,296
    Crops and other sources 37 76
    CO2 capture in woodland2 (92) (92)
    Total emissions 1,124 1,451

    Other resource use

    Year ended 31 March

    CO2 emissions1

    2021 

    Tonnes

    2020

    Tonnes

    Energy use (MWh) 652 872
    Mains water use (‘000s litres)3 6,305 5,744
    1. Emissions are estimated using a standard methodology and are subject to significant error margins due to the complexity of the factors affecting emissions.
    2. CO2 capture in woodland is estimated using woodland areas, tree species and age and excludes changes in soil carbon. It is not expected to change significantly in the short-term.

    Greenhouse gas emissions remain fairly constant in the system established on the farm, fluctuating each year with changes in the number of livestock, the amount of crops harvested and the amount of energy needed to work the soil and dry crops. This year’s emissions from livestock have fallen due to a reduction in the number of cattle. Emissions from crops have increased this year following an increase in the tonnage of crops harvested.

    Home Farm emissions 2021

     

    Download Carbon Report 2021

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