Income, Expenditure,
Staff and Sustainability Reports
2021/22

The official duties and charitable work of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, including the office of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, are paid for by His Royal Highness's private income from the Duchy of Cornwall. 

  • Income and Expenditure Account

    Year ended 31 March 2022 £000s
    2021 £000s
    2020 £000s
    Income and funding
    Duchy of Cornwall 23,024 20,415 22,444
    Sovereign Grant 999 424 1,762
    Total income and funding 24,023 20,839 24,006
    Official Expenditure
    Official duties and charitable work 9,262 7,834 8,453
    London office and official residence 107 172 521
    Official travel by air and rail 892 252 1,241
    Total Sovereign Grant 999 424 1,762
    Surplus after official expenditure 13,762 12,581 13,791
    Other Expenditure
    Tax (including VAT) 5,892 5,022 4,861
    Non-official expenditure 3,315 3,063 3,203
    Funding for the activities of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and other expenditure, including capital expenditure less depreciation, and transfers to reserves 4,381 4,452 5,607
    Net cash surplus 174 44 120
    Transfer to Reserves
    The Household makes transfers to reserves each year, the amount of which varies depending on the financial outcome in the year. Reserves provide resilience and fund large scale projects, one of which in the last two years has been the conversion of the Sandringham Farm to be fully organic.
  • Income and Funding

    (Total £24.006m)

    • Income from Duchy of Cornwall - £23.024m
    • Funding from the Sovereign Grant - £999k
    £000s
    Duchy of Cornwall 23.024

    The Prince of Wales' private income comes from the Duchy of Cornwall, an estate comprising agricultural, commercial residential property mostly in the South West of England. The Duchy also has a financial investment portfolio. His Royal Highness uses the majority of his income from the Duchy to support his public duties and charitable work and those of The Duchess of Cornwall and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. The Duchy of Cornwall's income was 13% higher than the prior year. Annual accounts for the Duchy of Cornwall can be obtained online at www.duchyofcornwall.org

    £000s
    Sovereign Grant Funding 999

    The Sovereign Grant funding covers official costs incurred in support of Her Majesty The Queen as Head of State. Funding for travel for official engagements varies from year to year depending on the countries Their Royal Highnesses are asked to visit on behalf of Her Majesty's Government and this year funding increased by £0.640 million from £0.252million to  £0.892million. This was due to restrictions on travel due to COVID-19 relaxing during the previous year.

    The Sovereign Grant also funds the official costs relating to the London office and official residence of Their Royal Highnesses which decreased by £0.065million from £0.172million to £0.107million mainly relating to the ongoing refurbishment programme. More details about the Sovereign Grant are available at www.royal.uk

  • £000s
    Official duties and charitable work 9,262

    Over 50 per cent of The Prince of Wales’ after-tax income from the Duchy of Cornwall was spent on the official duties and charitable work of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall. Of the expenditure of £9.262 million, staff costs accounted for £5.805million, or 63 per cent.
    The Prince of Wales’ Household employs directly 113.3 full-time equivalent staff. Of these, 101.7 support Their Royal Highnesses in undertaking official duties and charitable work, and 9.6 are personal and estates staff.

    Expenditure

    (Total £19.468m)

    • Official duties and charitable work - £9.262m
    • London office and official residence - £107k
    • Official travel by air and rail - £892k
    • Tax - £5.892m
    • Non-official expenditure - £3.315m
    £000s
    Sovereign Grant Funding: London office and official residence 107

    Clarence House is the London office and official residence for The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall. It is used for official dinners, receptions and meetings, as well as for offices for Their Royal Highnesses’ official staff. The principal rooms, which are on the ground floor of Clarence House, were not open to the public in 2021/2022 due to Covid restrictions. The Household also has offices in other parts of St. James’ Palace. The Sovereign Grant meets the cost of the maintenance of Clarence House and of the other offices at St. James’ Palace. The Household of The Prince of Wales does not have direct oversight of the maintenance of the buildings. 

    £000s
    Sovereign Grant Funding: Official travel by air and rail 892

    An important part of The Prince of Wales’ role as Heir to The Throne is, with The Duchess of Cornwall, to bring people together, to act as a focal point for national life and to represent the country overseas. This involves a significant amount of travel that needs to be undertaken in a way that meets efficiency, security, environmental and presentational requirements. In 2021-22, Their Royal Highnesses travelled over 27,831 miles to and from official engagements in the UK and overseas on behalf of the Government of the United Kingdom and other Realms. About half of the miles travelled were overseas. The majority of the costs of the journeys to non-Realm countries, amounting to £0.892 million in 2021-22, were met by the Sovereign Grant. The majority of the cost of journeys to Realm countries are met by those countries. 
    This figure includes the variable costs only for journeys undertaken using Her Majesty The Queen’s aircrafts and the Royal Train. This is because the fixed costs are incurred irrespective of whether the aircrafts and train are used and do not result from undertaking specific journeys. For a full explanation, see the Sovereign Grant Annual Report 2021-22 at www.royal.uk

    £000s
    Tax 5,892

    The Prince of Wales voluntarily pays income tax on the surplus of the Duchy of Cornwall after deducting official expenditure for all members of His Royal Highness’ family. The Prince of Wales also pays tax as a private individual on all other income, including capital gains tax where applicable. Tax payable for the year is £5.892million. If employer’s National Insurance contributions and Council Tax are included, the total increases to £6.600 million.

    £000s
    Non-official expenditure 3,315

    In addition to paying for the official duties of The Prince of Wales, The Duchess of Cornwall and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, some charitable work and The Prince’s tax liabilities, the income from the Duchy of Cornwall is used to meet non-official expenditure of The Prince of Wales and his family.
    Non-official expenditure covers the salary costs of personal staff, and a proportion of the costs of gardeners, estate workers and the cost of Highgrove House in Gloucestershire and Birkhall on the Balmoral Estate in Scotland.

  • Staff

    For the year ended 31st March Full-time equivalent staff 2022
       
    Private Secretaries' Office  
    Principal Private Secretary and Assistant 2.0
    Private, Deputy and Assistant Private Secretaries 6.8
    Research and Administrative staff 17.1
    Equerry 1.0
    Equerry's Office 4.0
      30.9
    Treasurer’s Department  
    Treasurer and Assistant 3.0
    Finance office 7.0
    Archives & Gifts and Inventory 5.8
    Personal and Official Gifts 1.0
    Human Resources 4.0
    Garden and Estate Workers 6.9
    House Staff-Estates 2.5
      30.2
    Communications  
    Communications Secretary and Assistants 2.0
    Deputy and Communications Secretaries 1.8
    Communications Officers and Digital Engagement 5.0
    Correspondence 3.4
      12.2
    Master of the Household’s Department  
    Master of the Household and Assistants 4.6
    Travel Logistics 2.0
    Butlers 1.4
    Chefs 4.1
    Orderlies 5.5
    Reception 0.6
    Chauffeurs 2.1
    House Managers and Housekeepers 5.0
    Valets and Dressers 3.1
      28.4

    Total Official Staff as at 31 March 2021

    101.7

    "The Household believes that the diversity of modern society is its greatest asset and wishes to attract, employ, and reward the very best talent, regardless of gender, race, ethnic or national origin, disability, religion, sexual orientation or age."

    Offices

    The principal office of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, where most of their staff work, is Clarence House and other parts of St. James’ Palace in central London. The cost of maintaining the fabric of the buildings, as well as a proportion of the costs of utilities and fixed-line telephones, is met from Sovereign Grant funding. There are also offices for official staff at Their Royal Highnesses’ residences of Highgrove and Birkhall to assist The Prince of Wales with his continuing work. Some costs incurred at Highgrove and Birkhall are, therefore, charged to the official duties and charitable work expenditure.

    Staff and Office Organisation

    The Principal Private Secretary

    The Principal Private Secretary is the head of The Prince of Wales’ and The Duchess of Cornwall’s Household. They are responsible for all aspects of running the Household and Their Royal Highnesses’ public work.

    The Private Secretaries’ Office

    The Private, Deputy and Assistant Private Secretaries facilitate and support The Prince of Wales’ and The Duchess of Cornwall’s official duties, engagements, and charitable work. They are responsible for Their Royal Highnesses’ diaries, arrange briefing sessions, receptions and other functions, and co-ordinate research and briefings to support their work. Each Secretary is responsible for specific areas and for liaising with The Prince’s and The Duchess’ organisations. They also ensure that Their Royal Highnesses are kept informed about topical issues, provide them with background information for their correspondence and meetings, and prepare drafts for speeches and articles. The Private Secretaries are supported by researchers, personal assistants and administrative staff, and work closely with their colleagues in other Households.

    The Equerry’s Office is responsible for the programme of engagements for The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall. The Equerry’s Office manages Their Royal Highnesses’ diaries on a daily basis and plans the longer-term programme. The Equerry is a serving military officer seconded from the Armed Forces to the Household for a period of approximately two years.

    Each year, The Prince and The Duchess receive thousands of invitations from a wide range of public and private sector organisations. Each is given careful consideration by Their Royal Highnesses and their staff. The Equerry liaises with the Private Secretaries, the Communications Office and key organisations to ensure that each year in their visits, The Prince and The Duchess cover a broad range of interests and meet a wide cross-section of people in as many parts of the country as possible. The Equerry also provides a point of contact for military and defence issues. The Prince of Wales maintains close links with the Armed Forces, not just in Britain but also in the Commonwealth.

    The Prince of Wales conducts Investitures at Buckingham Palace and attends state functions at the request and on behalf of Her Majesty The Queen. The Equerry’s Office is responsible for the arrangements for these engagements.

    The Treasurer’s Office

    The Treasurer’s Office is responsible for Finance, HR, Archives, and Inventory. The Office is also responsible for information systems across the Household and contractual and legal matters.

    The Finance Department exercises financial control through a combination of annual budgets, reforecasts and management accounts and through the application of policies and procedures, particularly for the authorisation of expenditure. It is also responsible for achieving the best value for money and works with the Master’s Department on procurement. The majority of the Household’s information technology systems are provided and supported by the Information Systems Management section at Buckingham Palace, with the Household’s cost met by The Prince of Wales.

    The Human Resources Department ensures a highly productive working environment which enables staff to work collaboratively and supports learning and career development.

    It is responsible for all aspects of the Household staffing, including structure, search and selection, inward and outbound secondments, remuneration and benefits, training and development, internal communications, health and wellbeing, and health and safety.

    Three Archivists are responsible for managing all the papers and files relating to the public life of The Prince of Wales since the late 1960s. The Keeper of the Archives also manages requests for The Prince and The Duchess to become patron or president of organisations, as well as requests relating to existing patronages and presidencies. One inventory controller and two assistants are responsible for the recording and safekeeping of gifts and assets owned by Their Royal Highnesses and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.

    Communications

    As Heir to The Throne, there is extensive public and media interest in the activities of His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales and that of The Duchess of Cornwall. The Clarence House Communications Office helps to facilitate a better understanding of their work and activities. The Communications Office handles all media enquiries and proactive communications, including features, documentaries and events, for The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall and liaises closely with Royal Communications colleagues in respect of general issues to do with The Royal Family.

    Correspondence

    The Prince of Wales, The Duchess of Cornwall and The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge receive a large number of letters each year. In 2021-22, for example, 52,246 letters and cards were received. People from all over the world write to Their Royal Highnesses, although the majority of the letters are from the UK. Letters cover a wide range of subjects and are often prompted by current issues and debates. Their Royal Highnesses see a wide selection of the correspondence and reply to many of the letters they receive directly. The Prince personally wrote 1,830 letters in 2021-22 and The Duchess of Cornwall wrote 2,401 personal letters. Their Royal Highnesses ensure that letters not answered by themselves or their Private Secretaries are replied to by the Correspondence Section on their behalf.

    Master of the Household’s Department

    The Master of the Household is responsible for Their Royal Highnesses’ residences, offices and gardens, personal staff, receptions and all entertaining. The Master of the Household, in conjunction with the Metropolitan Police, is also responsible for security.

    Official entertaining is an important part of The Prince of Wales’ and The Duchess of Cornwall’s role. These occasions range from receiving official guests and foreign dignitaries to giving receptions of various kinds to thank those involved with The Prince’s and The Duchess’ charities.

    The Master of the Household’s Department manages the logistical and transport arrangements for official visits at home and abroad. There are usually several overseas visits a year. The Department also includes Orderlies (who maintain office equipment and are responsible for office supplies, stationery and office cars) and Receptionists.

    Working at The Household

    The Household believes that the diversity of modern society is its greatest asset. The Household wishes to attract, employ, and reward the very best talent, regardless of gender, race, ethnic or national origin, disability, religion, sexual orientation or age. The Household enables our employees to contribute to their maximum potential and we draw strength from our diversity.  The recruitment process enables the Household to recruit from the widest available pool with an approach which is fair, open and accessible.

    Supporting people, organisations and communities

    Support for people, communities and organisations is a major part of Their Royal Highnesses’ vision and work and a primary focus for their charities and engagement programmes. This year the Household supported Their Royal Highnesses in undertaking 356 engagements in person across 3 countries and 84 towns and cities in the UK and virtually.

    Their Royal Highnesses’ engagements are intended to cast a light on excellence and achievement in communities across all sectors of society, to bring people together in support of community-based initiatives and endeavours, to promote and protect traditions that are shared and valued by people from many different walks of life and to act as a focal point for local and national unity and cohesion.

    The Prince’s consolidated charitable structure of The Prince’s Trust group, The Prince’s Foundation and The Prince of Wales Charitable Fund has allowed renewed focus on providing youth opportunity, skills training, education and community outreach programmes to thrive.

  • Sustainability report

    Their Royal Highnesses devote much of their lives to environmental and social causes, through the charities and initiatives they support and the engagements they undertake.

    This section sets out some of the positive contributions the Household makes in support of Their Royal Highnesses. It also sets out its main environmental impacts, which arise from travel, office and domestic energy use.

    The environment

    Greenhouse gas emissions

    Greenhouse gas emissions arise primarily through the burning of fossil fuels for transport, heating and lighting.

    Household emissions from energy use increased by 2% from 2021 levels; whilst emissions from non-official travel have increased by 129% following the lifting of the COVID-19 pandemic travelling restrictions. However, 2022 travel emissions are 22% lower than pre pandemic 2019 emissions.

    Year ended 31 March CO2 emissions 2022 Tonnes 2021 Tonnes
    Office and domestic energy use 88 84
    Non-official travel 357 156
    Total energy and non-official travel emissions 445 240

    While emissions vary each year, the aim is to ensure they are minimised by investing in renewable energy and ensuring travel is planned with carbon as well as cost, security and logistics in mind. This year 89% of energy (including green gas and electricity) came from renewable sources and just under half of this was generated on-site by solar panels, biomass boilers and heat pumps.

    Official UK and overseas travel is considered separately as it is on behalf of Her Majesty’s UK Governments and is not under the Household’s control. The carbon emissions associated with the Official travel are detailed within the Sovereign Grant Annual Report.

    The Household balances out its emissions to zero by investing in sustainable projects; for each tonne emitted the Household buys a carbon credit representing a tonne stored or saved through credible carbon offsetting.

    Energy Use

    The table below shows the mix of energy sources used across the offices and residences and the resulting carbon emissions.

    Year ended 31 March

    Office and domestic energy use

    2022

    MWh

    2021

    MWh

    On-site renewable energy 1,373 1,394
    Electricity and gas (renewable sources via the grid) 810 754
    Total from renewable sources 2,183 2,148
    Electricity, gas and oil (non-renewable sources) 272 264
    Total energy use                                                      2,455 2,412

    CO2 emissions

    2022

    Tonnes

    2021

    Tonnes

    Gross carbon emissions (location-based) 250 156
    Net emissions (market-based)1 88 84

    1. Applying zero emissions to mains-gas backed by Green Gas Credits and applying the market rate to electricity purchases under new Greenhouse Gas Protocol Scope 2 guidance – see the Carbon Report for more details.

    Travel

    Reported greenhouse gas emissions include staff travel between residences and in support of engagements, staff commuting and Their Royal Highnesses’ private travel. Emissions vary each year with the amount of travel undertaken and the modes of transport used.

    Year ended 31 March 2022 2021
    CO2 emissions 357 tonnes 156 tonnes

    Official travel outside and inside the UK is undertaken at the request either of Her Majesty’s Government, or the Government(s) of The Queen’s other Realms. Emissions vary each year depending on the countries Their Royal Highnesses are asked to visit. The carbon emissions associated with the Official travel are detailed within the Sovereign Grant Annual Report.

    Water

    Year ended 31 March

    Measured water use

    2022

    m3

    2021

    m3

    Total measured mains water use 15,699 9,187

    Water use varies each year according to various factors including the number and type of events and the amount of rain. Where possible, alternative sources of water are used such as collected rainwater or water from boreholes. Other measures to reduce water use includes the use of dual- flush toilets, low-flow showers and water-free car cleaning products. The Household also uses a range of cleaning products that are designed to reduce their impact on waterways.

    Waste

    Alongside the usual recycling arrangements for paper, card, metals and plastics, the Household has for many years sent food waste (e.g. vegetable peelings) from the London offices to be turned into fertiliser and generate renewable energy. Staff tea-points have bins to collect tea bags and other small bits of food waste as well as the main kitchens.

    Where possible, other waste is composted on-site. Food waste is minimised by careful meal planning and re-use of leftovers.

    The Household sends the majority of its plastic waste for recycling and is taking action to reduce its single plastic use. It has used glasses and ceramic mugs and cups rather than disposable cups for over a decade. Kitchens have chilled water dispensers that are connected to the mains, so plastic bottles aren’t needed.

    Procurement

    The Household’s environmental and social impact extends beyond its own activities and these are considered when choosing goods and services and suppliers.

    Businesses that have been granted a Royal Warrant for goods or services supplied to the Household have, since 1990, been required to demonstrate they understand and take a responsible approach to environmental and social issues. An independent committee, assisted by Business in the Community and the Household, reviews how the companies respond to a wide range of sustainability and social issues including climate change, endangered species, labour standards, genetic modification, deforestation and waste management (including use of  plastics). The Household also engages with other key suppliers on environmental and social matters.

     

    10 Year Trend

    10 year trend

    Download Carbon Report 2022

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